Short answer: Yes.
Long Answer: It depends.
ZWave Locks fall into a category called Barrier Devices and as the name implies, they are used around the "edge" and protect the inside. The spec says they MUST NOT work in not paired securely. That's the easy part, the next is, how to protect the exchange of security details. For a while, the "keepers of the ZWave" said to lower the power output of the radio, what came to be called "whisper" and thus the hub had to be close to "hear" the radio. Then it was noted that locks especially are battery driven and burning through batteries at a high rate would be a bad thing! The "keepers of the ZWave" introduced Beaming. This is a feature that is NOT on the lock, but on the Repeater devices: outlets and switches, etc. The feature works by repeating the messages from the hub to the lock repeatedly. All by itself. Til the Lock wakes up (it's battery driven so it's sleeping a lot) and gets the message.
I have a single Yale lock. When I migrated it to HE, I could NOT get it to pair securely. The lock and the hub were inches apart, would pair every time, just never securely. I gave up and moved on to the next device, leaving the lock Excluded. Lucky me, the next device I tried was a Linear (GoControl/Iris) Garage Door Opener.... also a Barrier device. Same issue, would pair, never securely. Again, eventually I gave up and moved on to the remaining devices in that area. The area was thick with ZWave devices. Nine devices in a 20 foot circle. All AC powered except one. That one paired well, indicating the mesh was "good enough."
An hour or two later I was done with that area and had added the automations for those surrounding devices. I decided to just try another Include to capture some logs, etc. preparing to write a message, much like the ones above. Took my Phone near the device, but left the hub far away in it's usual spot. Did the dance with the lock and it paired as expected, SECURELY too!! That was a shock.
So I tried the Garage Door.. same, paired securely.
Thus I extrapolate: beaming and whisper are not used together on those two devices. I don't have to be close, as long as I have beaming, it works just how I'd want it -- if I was keeper of the zwave.