Those buttons ship with their batteries already active (no tab to pull). Have you tried the battery from the working one in one of the others to see if it's just a battery issue?
When you removed the battery, was it for at least 10 seconds? Reset them by pressing and holding the paring button until the light flashes three times. Remove the battery for 10 seconds again, then put it back in and try pairing again.
Don't give up too easy. Study the threads on Xiaomi here and on ST for advice on resetting and pairing. I have had trouble with some of their devices when pairing. Some are easy, some really put up a fight. Remember, they are good if you use a compatible repeater like the IKEA Trådfri outlet and can handle the pain in getting them to pair, but they are not compliant with the Zigbee spec. Pairing often requires perseverance.
Of course, all the testing should be done with the battery you know to be good, otherwise you have not eliminated that variable.
With hub in pairing mode, until the device pairs, continue pressing the small button found on the perimeter edge of these buttons every few seconds. If there is no button on the edge but a small hole on the back, same deal, using a paper clip depress the switch in that small hole every few seconds.
You should see an led light blink several times as you press that button or switch. I've found these buttons and temp sensors pair fairly easy using this method. And if they ever drop off your mesh you can press these items the same way and they will rejoin even if the hub is not in pairing mode.
I'm using @veeceeoh's device handlers for my Xiaomi devices and have switched to Ikea Tradfri smart plugs for repeaters.
I had a contact sensor I just bought act this way. Paired, but no response. First time I encountered that. Pressed the pair button briefly after pairing (which like you, I was able to do fairly easily), and then it gave me battery level, but still no response.
Left it paired and did nothing more. Checked it the next day and it now works normally and has been working just fine even since. Might be a similar issue. One thing I did notice is that each time I briefly pressed the pair button, the last checkin value would update. If you get this, you may have a similar issue. So you might try just pairing, leaving it overnight and then see if you get normal behavior the next day.