Not really, only superficially. The BIG difference of Predicate Conditions is that they are set before the rule is triggered. With Rule-3.0, a Condition was tested when the rule was triggered by anything happening that would affect the rule, and then actions for true and false followed. For a Predicate Condition, nothing happens because of it changing from true to false or false to true -- that does not cause actions to run.
That's why they are called "Predicate Conditions". These conditions must already be true for the rule to be triggered.