So sunrise is at 5:42? Your condition is, then, effectively "between 5:55 and 5:42," so the evaluation of "TRUE" is correct under the convention that "is between" is not a commutative operator and the order matters: the time of the left must be earlier than the time on the right. Rule Machine is therefore spanning midnight and evaluating 5:42 of the next day, causing this behavior. (By the way, I haven't seen many posts about sunrise/sunset problems except those surrounding Daylight Saving Time and similar summer/winter time changes, with the behavior fixing itself by the next day. Also, I use a 24-hour clock on Hubitat and have similar conditions set up; I do not have any problems here.)
You may be able to work around this issue in a few ways. For lighting automations, I personally use modes. I have "Morning," "Day," "Evening," and "Night" modes (plus a new "Cloudy" mode I use as an alternative to "Day" when I need more indoor light). This eliminates the need for me to use time-based conditions for lighting automations/apps. I think this setup is pretty common. If you prefer time, however, you can probably find a creative workaround. One thing I could think of is adding another condition, like "Time between sunrise and 23:59," which will be True when sunrise for that day has already happened and false otherwise; you can combine that with other conditions as needed for your logic to arrive at the truth value you want for whether the "between" time is capturing a time period within the same day.