Is a raspberry pi and a cheap nas the same basically as a more expensive one?

Thanks. Does using half a hdd for recording affect the other noy used half in terms of performance?

No, the NAS is just limiting the total amount of space that can be used up by recordings, according to the limit you set.

So one hdd can record and be used for “photo storage?” An ssd or hdd would be better for this?

One hard drive can be used for pretty much anything you want, until it runs out of space.

For recording security camera footage and backing up photos from multiple devices, you don’t need the speed of an ssd over an hdd. Either will work though.

SSDs are not good for continuous video storage. Some NAS units can have SSD cache drives if desired. But, I don't recommend SSD only for NAS.

Video recording is generally limited by network or processor SOMEWHERE. It might be the NAS, it might be the camera. It is not typically the HDD storage subsystem until you get to many cameras.